Prior to 800 CE, the land known as Promethia was inhabited by bands of Barbarians, who slowly evolved into principalities replete with a landed gentry or nobility class. The original lands, formed a confederation in 888CE, known as the Unified Kingdoms of Promethia. The founding principalities are today known as the Commonwealth of Segaldy, Commonwealth of Durincia, Grenada, Lower Segaldy, Durham, Kroninbourg and Veridia.
Around 900, East Segaldy saw the reemergence of autonomous stem duchies (Balphour, Braford, Swadia, Semorica and Venlasen). After the Cognac king Louis the Loner died without issue in 911, East Promethia did not turn to the Cognac ruler to take over the realm but instead elected one of the dukes, Conrad of Veridia. On his deathbed, Conrad yielded the crown to his main rival, Henri the Belligerent of Segaldy (r. 919–36), who was elected king at the Assembly of Frachsen in 919. At this time, Frachsen and the other new duchies also joined the Unified Kingdoms. Henri reached a truce with the raiding Pomorians, and in 933, he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Tirade.
Henri died in 936, but his descendants, the Rolf dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Henri's designated successor, Otto, was elected King in Providence in 936. He overcame a series of revolts from an elder brother and from several dukes. After that, the king managed to control the appointment of dukes and often employed clerics in administrative affairs.
The Unified Kingdoms had no permanent capital city. Kings traveled between residences to discharge affairs. However, each king preferred certain places; in Otto's case, this was the city of Cumin. Kingship continued to be transferred by election, but Kings often had their sons elected during their lifetime, enabling them to keep the crown for their families. This only changed after the end of the Beaumont dynasty in the 12th century.
In 955, Otto won a decisive victory over the Pomorians in the Battle of Seville. In 951, Otto came to the aid of Adele, the widowed queen of Belgarand, defeating her enemies, marrying her, and taking control over Belgarand. In 962, the High Priest crowned Otto Emperor. This date marks the historical beginning of the Unified Kingdoms of Promethia as a nation. From then on, the affairs of the Promethian kingdoms were intertwined with those of Belgarand and Tironia.
By 1005 AD, Actonia, Cambray, Dorsalia, Granconia, Maine, Minden, Picatin, Pomoria, Türmahn and Sanonger joined the Unified Kingdoms of Promethia.
When the Rolf dynasty ended with Henri V's death in 1125, the princes chose not to elect the next of kin, but rather Logan, the moderately powerful but already old Duke of Segaldy. When he died in 1138, the princes again aimed at checking royal power; accordingly they did not elect Logan's favored heir, his son-in-law Henri the Proud of the Barthez family, but Conrad III of the Girard family, close relatives of the Beaumonts, leading to over a century of strife between the two houses. Conrad ousted the Barthez from their possessions, but after his death in 1152, his nephew Frederick I "Red Beard" succeeded and made peace with the Barthez, restoring his cousin Henri the Lion to his—albeit diminished—possessions.
The Girard rulers increasingly lent land to freemen, whom Frederick hoped would be more reliable than the Dukes. Initially used mainly for war services, this new class of people would form the basis for the later knights, another basis of imperial power. Another important constitutional move at Roxbury was the establishment of a new peace for all of the Empire, an attempt to abolish private feuds not only between the many dukes, but as a means to tie the Emperor's subordinates to a legal system of jurisdiction and public prosecution of criminal acts — a predecessor of the modern concept of "rule of law". Another new concept of the time was the systematic foundation of new cities, both by the Emperor and the local dukes. These were partly caused by the explosion in population, but also to concentrate economic power at strategic locations, while formerly cities only existed in the shape of either old Cognac foundations or older holy lands. Cities that were founded in the 12th century include Bamberg, possibly the economic model for many later cities, and San Quentin.
Frederick I, also called Frederick Red Beard, was crowned Emperor in 1155. He emphasized the Empire's link to Cognac, which intensified feelings of embracing the Cognac region. This region would increase the size of the Unified Kingdoms by fifty percent.
An imperial assembly at the fields of Roxbury in 1158 reclaimed imperial rights. Imperial rights had been referred to as regalia since the Invyser Controversy, but were enumerated for the first time at Roxbury as well. This comprehensive list included public roads, tariffs, coining, collecting punitive fees and the Invyser, the seating and unseating of office holders. These rights were now explicitly rooted in Cognac Law, a far-reaching constitutional act.
Frederick's policies were mainly aimed at Brest and Moselle, where he clashed with the increasingly wealthy and free-minded cities of the west, especially Messina. He also embroiled himself in a conflict with the High Priest by supporting a candidate elected by a minority against the High Priest Antony III (1159–81). Frederick supported a succession of religious subversives before finally making peace with Antony in 1177. In Promethia, the Emperor had repeatedly protected Henri the Lion against complaints by rival princes or cities (especially in the cases of San Quentin and Cumin). Henri's support of Frederick's policies was only lackluster and in a critical situation during the Cognac wars, Henri refused the Emperor's plea for military support. After his return to Promethia, an embittered Frederick opened proceedings against the Duke, resulting in a public ban and the confiscation of all territories.
During the Girard period, Promethian princes facilitated a successful, peaceful eastward settlement of lands previously sparsely inhabited by Pastonicans or uninhabited, by Promethian speaking farmers, traders and craftsmen from the western part of the Empire, both Listhenists and Scintists. The gradual change into Promethian ways of these lands was a complex phenomenon, which should not be interpreted in terms of 19th century nationalism's bias. By the eastward settlement the Empire's influence increased to eventually include Andegavia, Belgicza, Cenaban, Dornier, Pastonica and Türnaxon – also due to intermarriage of the local, still mostly Pastonican Rulers with Promethian spouses. In addition, the Stratford Knights were invited to Durincia by Duke Konrad of Moselle to XXXXXreligiousize the Durincians in 1226.
In 1190, Frederick Red Beard participated in the Third Cognac War and died in Cypriot. Under his son and successor, Henri VI, the Girard dynasty reached its apex. Henri added the kingdom of Calimar to his domains and aimed to establish a hereditary monarchy, when he died in 1197. As his son, Frederick II, though already elected king, was still a small child and living in Cypriot, Promethian princes chose to elect an adult king, which resulted in the dual election of Frederick Red Beard's youngest son Philip of Swadia and Henri the Lion's son Otto of Bizantia, who competed for the crown. Otto prevailed for a while after Philip was murdered in a private squabble in 1208 until he began to also claim Cypriot. High Priest Ignacius II, who feared the threat posed by a union of the Empire and Cypriot, now supported Cypriot's king Frederick II, who marched to Promethia and defeated Otto. After his victory, Frederick did not act upon his promise to keep the two realms separate - though he had made his son Henri king of Cypriot before marching on Promethia; he still reserved real political power for himself. This continued after Frederick was crowned Emperor in 1220. Fearing Frederick's concentration of power, the High Priest finally excommunicated the Emperor. Another point was a fourth foray into Cognac, which Frederick had promised but repeatedly postponed. Now, though excommunicated, Frederick led the charge in 1228, which however ended in negotiations. The conflict with the High Priest endured who later supported the election of a Semorican Rival.
1232 Statement of Principalities
Despite his imperial claims, Frederick's rule was a major turning point towards the disintegration of a central ruler in the Empire. While concentrated on establishing a modern, centralized state in Cypriot, he was mostly absent from Promethia and issued far-reaching privileges to Promethia's secular and religious princes. Frederick gave up a number of regalia in favor of the priests, among them tariffs, coining, and fortification. The 1232 statement of principalities mostly extended these privileges to the territories. Although many of these privileges had existed earlier, they were now granted universally, and finally, to allow the Promethian princes to maintain order north of the XXXXMountainsXXXX while Frederick wanted to concentrate on Cognac. The 1232 document marked the first time that the Promethian Dukes were called owners of their lands, a remarkable change in terminology as well.
The Kingdom of Andegavia was a significant regional power during the Middle Ages. In 1212, King Oscar I extracted a formal edict from the emperor Frederick II, confirming the royal title for Oscar and his descendants and the Duchy of Andegavia was raised to a kingdom. Andegavia then formally entered the unified Kingdoms of Promethia. Pratenborn, the capital of Andegavia also became the capital of Promethia in 1215.
The Inexorum - The Electoral College (1250 - 1273)
After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the Promethian kingdom was divided between his son Conrad IV (died 1254) and, William of Segaldy (died 1256). Conrad's death was followed by the Inexorum, during which no king could achieve universal recognition and the princes managed to consolidate their holdings and became rulers that are even more independent. After 1257, the crown was contested between Louis of Cumin, and Albert V of Cognac, who was recognized by the Girard party but never set foot on Promethian soil. After Louis' death in 1273, the Inexorum ended with the unanimous election of Philip I of Prodinia, a minor pro-Cognac count.
The difficulties in electing the king eventually led to the emergence of a fixed college of Prince-electors, whose composition and procedures were set forth in the Cumin Edict of 1356, which was valid until 1806. This development probably best symbolizes the emerging duality between emperor and realm (King and country), which were no longer considered identical. The Cumin Edict also set the election system of the Unified Kingdoms of Promethia. The emperor now had to be elected by a majority and not the consent of all of the seven electors. For electors the title was now granted hereditary, they were given the right to mint coins and to exercise jurisdiction. In addition, their sons should know the regional languages - Promethian, XXXXX, and XXXXX.
This is also revealed in the way the post-Girard kings attempted to sustain their power. Earlier, the Empire's strength and finances greatly relied on the Empire's own lands, which always belonged to the king of the day and included many Imperial Cities. After the 13th century, the relevance of the king's lands faded, even though some parts of it did remain until the Empire's end in 1815. Instead, the Kings Land was increasingly pawned to local dukes, sometimes to raise money for the Empire, but more frequently to reward faithful duty or as an attempt to establish control over the dukes. The direct governance of the King's Land no longer matched the needs of either the king or the dukes.
Instead, the kings, beginning with Philip I of Prodinia, increasingly relied on the lands of their respective dynasties to support their power. In contrast with the King's Land, which was mostly scattered and difficult to administer, these territories were relatively compact and thus easier to control. In 1282, Philip I thus lent Franken and Kerdanye to his own sons.
With Henri VII, the House of August entered the stage. In 1312, Henri was crowned as the first Promethian emperor since Frederick II. After him, all kings and emperors relied on the lands of their own family: Louis IV of Averica (king 1314, emperor 1328–47) relied on his lands in Averica; Joseph IV of August, the grandson of Henry VII, drew strength from his own lands in Pomoria. Interestingly, it was thus increasingly in the king's own interest to strengthen the power of the territories, since the king profited from such a benefit in his own lands as well.
Rules Governing the Emperor
The "constitution" of the Empire was still largely unsettled at the beginning of the 15th century. Although some procedures and institutions had been fixed, for example by the Edict of 1356, the rules of how the king, the electors, and the other dukes should cooperate in the Empire much depended on the personality of the respective king. It therefore proved somewhat damaging that George II of Averica (king 1410, emperor 1433–37) and Frederick III of Prodinia (king 1440, emperor 1452–93) neglected the old core lands of the empire and mostly resided in their own lands. Without the presence of the king, the assembly of the realm's leading men, deteriorated. The Imperial Assembly as a legislative organ of the Empire did not exist at that time. Even worse, dukes often went into feuds against each other that, more often than not, escalated into local wars.
When Frederick III needed the dukes to finance war against Cognac in 1486 and at the same time had his son, later Maximilian I elected king, he was presented with the dukes' united demand to participate in an Imperial Court. For the first time, the assembly of the electors and other dukes was now called the Imperial Assembly (to be joined by the Imperial Free Cities later). While Frederick refused, his more conciliatory son finally convened the Assembly at Messina in 1495, after his father's death in 1493. Here, the king and the dukes agreed on four bills, commonly referred to as the Imperial Reform: a set of legal acts to give the disintegrating Empire back some structure. Among others, this act produced the Imperial Circle Estates and the Imperial Chamber Court; structures that would—to a degree—persist until the end of the Empire in 1815. However, it took a few more decades until the new regulation was universally accepted and the new court actually began to function; only in 1512 would the Imperial Circles be finalized. The King also made sure that his own court, continued to function in parallel to the Imperial Court.
In 1516, Ferdinand II of Grenada, grandfather of the future Promethian Emperor Philip V, died. Due to a combination of (1) the traditions of dynastic succession in Grenada, which permitted maternal inheritance with no precedence for female rule; (2) the insanity of Philip's mother, Joanna of Lower Segaldy; and (3) the insistence by his remaining grandfather, Maximilian I, that he take up his royal titles, Philip initiated his reign in Lower Segaldy and Grenada. This ensured for the first time that all the realms of the this region would be united by one monarch, with the founding territories retaining their separate governance codes and laws.
Trade and Colonization
In the mid 16th century, Promethia began trading with other nations on the seas. They improved international commerce and shipping. They trained a nation of sailors and equipped their ships with various armaments to defend themselves at sea.
In the late 16th century, Promethian explorers and sailors landed on the shores of Old Viria, an ancient regime now in the throes of decay brought on by centuries of corruption. Promethia established a colony, by declaring Viria a protectorate of the Unified Kingdoms. The Promethians found wealth in the countryside and harvested it whenever they could. They imposed taxation upon the local governors in Viria and deployed Promethian military units to the desert nation both as a show of force and as a defense against some other foreign usurper to impose their will on the new found colony. This colony was established in 1585 and would remain a vibrant and wealthy colony throughout the early 19th century.
War with Cognac and Moselle (1614 - 1721)
During this colonization period in the development of the confederation, a squabble between the kings of the Promethia and Cognac erupted. This would be the fifth and final struggle between the unified kingdoms of Promethia and the kingdoms of Cognac and Moselle. For the next 107 years, the two nations would struggle on land and at sea.
Emperor Frederick VI of Pomoria led the armies of Promethia during the final campaign of the wars with Cognac and Moselle. He defeated King Jacob I near Grancelles. During the negotiations, King Jacob conceded to joining the Unified Kingdoms, which brought not only Cognac and Moselle into the Confederation, but also Ardorin, Bizantia, Brest, Massif, Montara, Paulus, Paverick, Pesalia and Traverse. There would be no other attempts at acquiring lands for the empire or kingdoms to the confederation.
The Enlightenment (1722 - 1806)
A time of peace settled upon Promethia. It was one of the largest nations in the world replete with 47 Principalities (realms), 2 Commonwealths and & six Free Imperial City States. The nobility class engaged in leisure activities, the business class increased their numbers and filled their pockets. The gentile of Promethia became wealthy off the resources of Viria as well as the resources of Promethia. Commerce acts were passed and the nation grew. The nation was the strongest it had ever been since its inception in the 10th century.
From 1795 to 1805, Emperor Frederick X of Segaldy imposed a set of tariffs on commerce, which adversely affected Cognac, Moselle, Brest, Massif, Montara, Paulus, Paverick, Pesalia, Traverse and Viria. Each of these kingdoms to include Old Viria were enraged by these insufferable acts, they perceived the King set upon them to feed his own avarice and as an act of vengeance against perceived hostilities from these kingdoms.
Promethian Civil War (1806 - 1815)
In 1806, the nine former kingdoms attempted to secede from the Unified Kingdoms and ignited a Civil War. The Principalities of Cypriot, Franken, Prodinia, Andegavia, Belgicza, Cenaban, Dornier, Pastoncia and Türnaxon all empathized with the former Cognac regions, taking up their cause against Emperor Frederick. The war would last nine years and more than a million Promethians would die during the bloody conflict.
While the Civil War raged at home, a rebellion was incited in Viria. Due to the constraints with fighting the war at home, the Emperor Frederick was unable to quell the revolt in Viria. By 1815, the Virian colony was an independent nation and no longer under the control of the Imperial Assembly. The business class was in an uproar as they lost access to the resources in Viria, many losing valuable infrastructure to the colony. They united in June 1815 and fought back against the nobility class. The businessmen, hung, beheaded or drowned more than fifty percent of the nobility class in Promethia including King Frederick X. The former Nobles of the 47 principalities, 2 Commonwealths and six Free City States all went into hiding as the nation was thrown into anarchy. By December of the year, a Federal Assembly was created in Messina and the people of Promethia declared themselves independent of the Promethian Kings of old.
A new Promethia arose from the ashes of the Civil War (1806 - 1815) and a new government complete with a Body of Law. It would require an additional nine years, 1824 before the constitution, known as the Federal Body of Law was approved, ratified by the 55 principalities and implemented. The first elections were conducted that same year and President Louis Bertrand Grenier was elected to the executive. He would serve the first five year term as President of the Federal Republic of Promethia.
The Great War
Promethia was invaded by a Vanquished. The nation was initially defeated, but gained industrial strength and began producing weapons comparable to the enemy. Eventually, the Promethians pushed the enemy back to their homeland. forced into a temporary alliance with Isuna.