A little numeric experiment with spheres and turrets. Let's say you have a 450 foot diameter sphere. Using 4/3 pi r^3, you can determine the volume to be roughly 36 million cubic feet. And using 4 pi r^2, you can calculate the volume as 636,000 square feet.
Now say you put all of the weapons on external turrets. Turrets need room to maneuver... a lot of it. So roughly 20% of your sphere's surface can be covered in turrets, or 160,000 square feet. Now you have an option between small point defense turrets (400 square feet each) and large weapons platforms (5000 square feet each). If you use entirely large weapons playforms, you can fit roughly 32 turrets on the ship, each turret supporting some 20,000 cubic feet worth of guns. And that's close to the maximum firepower of a ship that size's turret array.